3. TCP / IP
The protocol used for communicating over the internet is called TCP/IP, or "Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol". It has two parts: TCP and IP.
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
This protocol prepares messages for transmission and reassembles any received messages.
When sending data the TCP rules (protocol) include
- Dividing the message into packets
- Adding a sequence number to each packet so the message can be re-assembled
- Adding extra error-correction information, so errors can be spotted and fixed
When receiving data the TCP rules (protocol) include
- Examining each packet for errors by using the extra information that was added to it
- Fixing any errors (if possible) or requesting that the packet be re-sent
- Spotting missing packets and requesting them to be re-sent
- If all packets are present, using the sequence number of each packet to re-assemble the message
This TCP/IP process is shown in the diagram below.
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